miércoles, noviembre 22, 2006

Estudios faciales sobre la población del Reino Unido

¿Estudios faciales sobre una población?

Pues sí, aunque parezca algo raro "la cara es el reflejo del alma" y algo más, es el reflejo de los genes, del material genético de cada persona, es decir de su verdadero origen.

Y ¿qué tiene que ver esto con el origen del lenguaje inglés?
¿Es posible intentar identificar el origen de un lenguaje con los rasgos faciales de sus hablantes?

martes, octubre 24, 2006

"Anglo-Saxon Chronicle"

Siguiendo con la investigación, en las Anglo-Saxon Chronicle quizás encontremos algunas referencias a lo que ocurrió...

... y también en el siguiente enlace acerca del Rey Arturo:


Pero, para no perdernos vamos a una de las fuentes originales de las que disponemos hoy en día: las "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" o Crónicas anglosajonas, parte de cuyo texo completo puedes leer aquí (hasta la histórica fecha del eclipse):

"The island Britain is 800 miles long, and 200 miles broad.And there are in the island five nations; English, Welsh, Scottish, Pictish, and Latin. The firstinhabitants were the Britons, who came from Armenia, andfirst peopled Britain southward. Then happened it, that thePicts came south from Scythia, with long ships, not many; and,landing first in the northern part of Ireland, they told theScots that they must dwell there. But they would not give themleave; for the Scots told them that they could not all dwellthere together; "But," said the Scots, "we can nevertheless giveyou advice. We know another island here to the east. There youmay dwell, if you will; and whosoever withstandeth you, we willassist you, that you may gain it." Then went the Picts andentered this land northward. Southward the Britons possessed it,as we before said. And the Picts obtained wives of the Scots, oncondition that they chose their kings always on the female side; which they have continued to do, so long since. And ithappened, in the run of years, that some party of Scots went fromIreland into Britain, and acquired some portion of this land.Their leader was called Reoda, from whom they are named Dalreodi.
Sixty winters ere that Christ was born, Caius Julius, emperor ofthe Romans, with eighty ships sought Britain. There he was firstbeaten in a dreadful fight, and lost a great part of his army.Then he let his army abide with the Scots, and went southinto Gaul. There he gathered six hundred ships, with which hewent back into Britain. When they first rushed together,Caesar's tribune, whose name was Labienus, was slain. Thentook the Welsh sharp piles, and drove them with great clubs intothe water, at a certain ford of the river called Thames. Whenthe Romans found that, they would not go over the ford. Thenfled the Britons to the fastnesses of the woods; and Caesar,having after much fighting gained many of the chief towns, wentback into Gaul.

B.C. 60. Before the incarnation of Christ sixty years, GaiusJulius the emperor, first of the Romans, sought the land ofBritain; and he crushed the Britons in battle, and overcame them;and nevertheless he was unable to gain any empire there.
A.D. 1. Octavianus reigned fifty-six winters; and in the forty-second year of his reign Christ was born. Then three astrologersfrom the east came to worship Christ; and the children inBethlehem were slain by Herod in persecution of Christ.
A.D. 3. This year died Herod, stabbed by his own hand; andArchelaus his son succeeded him. The child Christ was also thisyear brought back again from Egypt.
A.D. 6. From the beginning of the world to this year were agonefive thousand and two hundred winters.
A.D. 11. This year Herod the son of Antipater undertook thegovernment in Judea.
A.D. 12. This year Philip and Herod divided Judea into fourkingdoms.
A.D. 16. This year Tiberius succeeded to the empire.
A.D. 26. This year Pilate began to reign over the Jews.
A.D. 30. This year was Christ baptized; and Peter and Andrewwere converted, together with James, and John, and Philip, andall the twelve apostles.
A.D. 33. This year was Christ crucified; about five thousandtwo hundred and twenty six winters from the beginning of theworld.
A.D. 34. This year was St. Paul converted, and St. Stephenstoned.
A.D. 35. This year the blessed Peter the apostle settled anepiscopal see in the city of Antioch.
A.D. 37. This year Pilate slew himself with his own hand.
A.D. 39. This year Caius undertook the empire.
A.D. 44. This year the blessed Peter the apostle settled anepiscopal see at Rome; and James, the brother of John, was slainby Herod.
A.D. 45. This year died Herod, who slew James one year ere hisown death.
A.D. 46. This year Claudius, the second of the Roman emperorswho invaded Britain, took the greater part of the island into hispower, and added the Orkneys to rite dominion of the Romans.This was in the fourth year of his reign. And in the same year happened the great famine in Syria which Luke mentions inthe book called "The Acts of the Apostles". After Claudius Nerosucceeded to the empire, who almost lost the island Britainthrough his incapacity.
((A.D. 46. This year the Emperor Claudius came to Britain, andsubdued a large part of the island; and he also added the islandof Orkney to the dominion of the Romans.))
A.D. 47. This year Mark, the evangelist in Egypt beginneth towrite the gospel.
((A.D. 47. This was in the fourth year of his reign, and in thissame year was the great famine in Syria which Luke speaks of inthe book called "Actus Apostolorum".))
((A.D. 47. This year Claudius, king of the Romans, went with anarmy into Britain, and subdued the island, and subjected all thePicts and Welsh to the rule of the Romans.))
A.D. 50. This year Paul was sent bound to Rome.
A.D. 62. This year James, the brother of Christ, suffered.
A.D. 63. This year Mark the evangelist departed this life.
A.D. 69. This year Peter and Paul suffered.
A.D. 70. This year Vespasian undertook the empire.
A.D. 71. This year Titus, son of Vespasian, slew in Jerusalemeleven hundred thousand Jews.
A.D. 81. This year Titus came to the empire, after Vespasian,who said that he considered the day lost in which he did no good.
A.D. 83. This year Domitian, the brother of Titus, assumed thegovernment.
A.D. 84. This year John the evangelist in the island Patmoswrote the book called "The Apocalypse".
A.D. 90. This year Simon, the apostle, a relation of Christ, wascrucified: and John the evangelist rested at Ephesus.
A.D. 92. This year died Pope Clement.
A.D. 110. This year Bishop Ignatius suffered.
A.D. 116. This year Hadrian the Caesar began to reign.
A.D. 145. This year Marcus Antoninus and Aurelius his brothersucceeded to the empire.
((A.D. 167. This year Eleutherius succeeded to the popedom, andheld it fifteen years; and in the same year Lucius, king of theBritons, sent and begged baptism of him. And he soon sent ithim, and they continued in the true faith until the time ofDiocletian.))
A.D. 189. This year Severus came to the empire; and went withhis army into Britain, and subdued in battle a great part of theisland. Then wrought he a mound of turf, with a broad wallthereupon, from sea to sea, for the defence of the Britons. Hereigned seventeen years; and then ended his days at York. Hisson Bassianus succeeded him in the empire. His other son, whoperished, was called Geta. This year Eleutherius undertook thebishopric of Rome, and held it honourably for fifteen winters.To him Lucius, king of the Britons, sent letters, and prayed thathe might be made a Christian. He obtained his request; and theycontinued afterwards in the right belief until the reign ofDiocletian.
A.D. 199. In this year was found the holy rood. (13)
A.D. 283. This year suffered Saint Alban the Martyr.
A.D. 343. This year died St. Nicolaus.
A.D. 379. This year Gratian succeeded to the empire.
A.D. 381. This year Maximus the Caesar came to the empire. Hewas born in the land of Britain, whence he passed over into Gaul.He there slew the Emperor Gratian; and drove his brother, whosename was Valentinian, from his country (Italy). The sameValentinian afterwards collected an army, and slew Maximus;whereby he gained the empire. About this time arose the error ofPelagius over the world.
A.D. 418. This year the Romans collected all the hoards of gold(14) that were in Britain; and some they hid in the earth, sothat no man afterwards might find them, and some they carriedaway with them into Gaul.
A.D. 423. This year Theodosius the younger succeeded to theempire.
A.D. 429. This year Bishop Palladius was sent from PopeCelesrinus to the Scots, that he might establish their faith.
A.D. 430. This year Patricius was sent from Pope Celestinus topreach baptism to the Scots.
((A.D. 430. This year Patrick was sent by Pope Celestine topreach baptism to the Scots.))
A.D. 435. This year the Goths sacked the city of Rome; and neversince have the Romans reigned in Britain. This was about elevenhundred and ten winters after it was built. They reignedaltogether in Britain four hundred and seventy winters sinceGaius Julius first sought that land.
A.D. 443. This year sent the Britons over sea to Rome, andbegged assistance against the Picts; but they had none, for theRomans were at war with Atila, king of the Huns. Then sent theyto the Angles, and requested the same from the nobles of thatnation.
A.D. 444. This year died St. Martin.
A.D. 448. This year John the Baptist showed his head to twomonks, who came from the eastern country to Jerusalem for thesake of prayer, in the place that whilom was the palace of Herod.(15)
A.D. 449. This year Marcian and Valentinian assumed the empire,and reigned seven winters. In their days Hengest and Horsa,invited by Wurtgern, king of the Britons to his assistance,landed in Britain in a place that is called Ipwinesfleet; firstof all to support the Britons, but they afterwards fought againstthem. The king directed them to fight against the Picts; andthey did so; and obtained the victory wheresoever they came.They then sent to the Angles, and desired them to send moreassistance. They described the worthlessness of the Britons, andthe richness of the land. They then sent them greater support.Then came the men from three powers of Germany; the Old Saxons,the Angles, and the Jutes. From the Jutes are descended the menof Kent, the Wightwarians (that is, the tribe that now dwellethin the Isle of Wight), and that kindred in Wessex that men yetcall the kindred of the Jutes. From the Old Saxons came thepeople of Essex and Sussex and Wessex. From Anglia, which hasever since remained waste between the Jutes and the Saxons, camethe East Angles, the Middle Angles, the Mercians, and all ofthose north of the Humber. Their leaders were two brothers,Hengest and Horsa; who were the sons of Wihtgils; Wihtgils wasthe son of Witta, Witta of Wecta, Wecta of Woden. From thisWoden arose all our royal kindred, and that of the Southumbriansalso.
((A.D. 449. And in their days Vortigern invited the Anglesthither, and they came to Britain in three ceols, at the placecalled Wippidsfleet.))
A.D. 455. This year Hengest and Horsa fought with Wurtgern theking on the spot that is called Aylesford. His brother Horsabeing there slain, Hengest afterwards took to the kingdom withhis son Esc.
A.D. 457. This year Hengest and Esc fought with the Britons onthe spot that is called Crayford, and there slew four thousandmen. The Britons then forsook the land of Kent, and in greatconsternation fled to London.
A.D. 465. This year Hengest and Esc fought with the Welsh, nighWippedfleet; and there slew twelve leaders, all Welsh. On theirside a thane was there slain, whose name was Wipped.
A.D. 473. This year Hengest and Esc fought with the Welsh, andtook immense Booty. And the Welsh fled from the English likefire.
A.D. 477. This year came Ella to Britain, with his three sons,Cymen, and Wlenking, and Cissa, in three ships; landing at aplace that is called Cymenshore. There they slew many of theWelsh; and some in flight they drove into the wood that is calledAndred'sley.
A.D. 482. This year the blessed Abbot Benedict shone in thisworld, by the splendour of those virtues which the blessedGregory records in the book of Dialogues.
A.D. 485. This year Ella fought with the Welsh nigh Mecred's-Burnsted.
A.D. 488. This year Esc succeeded to the kingdom; and was kingof the men of Kent twenty-four winters.
A.D. 490. This year Ella and Cissa besieged the city of Andred,and slew all that were therein; nor was one Briten left thereafterwards.
A.D. 495. This year came two leaders into Britain, Cerdic andCynric his son, with five ships, at a place that is calledCerdic's-ore. And they fought with the Welsh the same day. Thenhe died, and his son Cynric succeeded to the government, and heldit six and twenty winters. Then he died; and Ceawlin, his son,succeeded, who reigned seventeen years. Then he died; and Ceolsucceeded to the government, and reigned five years. When hedied, Ceolwulf, his brother, succeeded, and reigned seventeenyears. Their kin goeth to Cerdic. Then succeeded Cynebils,Ceolwulf's brother's son, to the kingdom; and reigned one andthirty winters. And he first of West-Saxon kings receivedbaptism. Then succeeded Cenwall, who was the son of Cynegils,and reigned one and thirty winters. Then held Sexburga, hisqueen, the government one year after him. Then succeeded Escwineto the kingdom, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and held it two years.Then succeeded Centwine, the son of Cynegils, to the kingdom ofthe West-Saxons, and reigned nine years. Then succeeded Ceadwallto the government, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and held it threeyears. Then succeeded Ina to the kingdom of the West-Saxons,whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned thirty-seven winters.Then succeeded Ethelheard, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reignedsixteen years. Then succeeded Cuthred, whose kin goeth toCerdic, and reigned sixteen winters. Then succeeded Sigebriht,whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned one year. Then succeededCynwulf, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned one and thirtywinters. Then succeeded Brihtric, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, andreigned sixteen years. Then succeeded Egbert to the kingdom, andheld it seven and thirty winters, and seven months. Thensucceeded Ethelwulf, his son, and reigned eighteen years and ahalf. Ethelwulf was the son of Egbert, Egbert of Ealmund,Ealmund of Eafa, Eafa of Eoppa, Eoppa of Ingild, Ingild of Cenred(Ina of Cenred, Cuthburga of Cenred, and Cwenburga of Cenred),Cenred of Ceolwald, Ceolwald of Cuthwulf, Cuthwulf of Cuthwine,Cuthwine of Celm, Celm of Cynric, Cynric of Creoda, Creoda ofCerdic. Then succeeded Ethelbald, the son of Ethelwulf, to thekingdom, and held it five years. Then succeeded Ethelbert, hisbrother, and reigned five years. Then succeeded Ethelred, hisbrother, to the kingdom, and held it five years. Then succeededAlfred, their brother, to the government. And then had elapsedof his age three and twenty winters, and three hundred andninety-six winters from the time when his kindred first gainedthe land of Wessex from the Welsh. And he held the kingdom ayear and a half less than thirty winters. Then succeeded Edward,the son of Alfred, and reigned twenty-four winters. When hedied, then succeeded Athelstan, his son, and reigned fourteenyears and seven weeks and three days. Then succeeded Edmund, hisbrother, and reigned six years and a half, wanting two nights.Then succeeded Edred, his brother, and reigned nine years and sixweeks. Then succeeded Edwy, the son of Edmund, and reigned threeyears and thirty-six weeks, wanting two days. When he died, thensucceeded Edgar, his brother, and reigned sixteen years and eightweeks and two nights. When he died, then succeeded Edward, theson of Edgar, and reigned --
A.D. 501. This year Porta and his two sons, Beda and Mela, cameinto Britain, with two ships, at a place called Portsmouth. Theysoon landed, and slew on the spot a young Briton of very highrank.
A.D. 508. This year Cerdic and Cynric slew a British king, whosename was Natanleod, and five thousand men with him. After thiswas the land named Netley, from him, as far as Charford.
A.D. 509. This year St. Benedict, the abbot, father of all themonks, (16) ascended to heaven.
A.D. 514. This year came the West-Saxons into Britain, withthree ships, at the place that is called Cerdic's-ore. And Stuffand Wihtgar fought with the Britons, and put them to flight.
A.D. 519. This year Cerdic and Cynric undertook the governmentof the West-Saxons; the same year they fought with the Britons ata place now called Charford. From that day have reigned thechildren of the West-Saxon kings.
A.D. 527. This year Cerdic and Cynric fought with the Britons inthe place that is called Cerdic's-ley.
A.D. 530. This year Cerdic and Cynric took the isle of Wight,and slew many men in Carisbrook.
A.D. 534. This year died Cerdic, the first king of the West-Saxons. Cynric his son succeeded to the government, and reignedafterwards twenty-six winters. And they gave to their twonephews, Stuff and Wihtgar, the whole of the Isle of Wight.
A.D. 538. This year the sun was eclipsed, fourteen days beforethe calends of March, from before morning until nine.
A.D. 540. This year the sun was eclipsed on the twelfth daybefore the calends of July; and the stars showed themselves fullnigh half an hour over nine."

FUENTE: http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext96/angsx10.txt

miércoles, octubre 18, 2006

"De Exidio et Conquestu Britanniae"

Y ahora combinemos la historia con la mitología británica:

"The first traces of the Arthurian myth belong to the oral tradition of the Celts living in Wales. Unfortunately we have next to no written evidence from this time, the Mabinogion being the only exception. The first written evidence showing a connection to Arthur can be found in the De Exidio et Conquestu Britanniae (c.547) the first of a number of "Histories of the British". Gildas doesn't mention Arthur but he tells us of the battle of Mt. Badon where the British were led by Ambrosius Aurelianus, a leader of Roman descent. At this battle the invading Angles and Saxons were defeated. The next to mention this battle was Bede in his Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum (c.731) he dates this battle to have taken place in the 44th year of the invasion of the Angles and Saxons. The next Welshman to give an account of Mt. Badon and the first to mention Arthur as the leader of the British is Nennius in his Historia Britonum (c.9th century). He tells a story of twelve battles that Arthur fought the twelfth being the battle at Mt. Badon. Nennius also tells of Arthur's dog Cabal who left his footprint on a stone which led Arthur collect a pile of stones at this place, Carn Cabal. The legend goes that the imprinted stone if taken away by travelers will be back on the pile the next morning. This is one of many legends connected to Arthur that the modern reader will normally have problems of connecting with the figure of this legendary King."

FUENTE: http://www.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/anglist1/staff/helbig/survey/html/body_welsh_chronicles.html

¿Cuál era la población cuando llegaron los saxones?

Veamos primero algunas referencias:

"Population estimates based on the size and density of settlements put Britain's population at about 3.5 million by the time Romans invaded in A.D. 43.
Many historians now believe subsequent invaders from mainland Europe had little genetic impact on the British.
The notion that large-scale migrations caused drastic change in early Britain has been widely discredited, according to Simon James, an archaeologist at Leicester University, England."
"The gene pool of the island has changed, but more slowly and far less completely than implied by the old invasion model," James writes in an article for the website BBC History.
For the English, their defining period was the arrival of Germanic tribes known collectively as the Anglo-Saxons. Some researchers suggest this invasion consisted of as few as 10,000 to 25,000 people—not enough to displace existing inhabitants.
Analysis of human remains unearthed at an ancient cemetery near Abingdon, England, indicates that Saxon immigrants and native Britons lived side by side.
"Probably what we're dealing with is a majority of British people who were dominated politically by a new elite," Miles said. "They were swamped culturally but not genetically."
Genetic Continuity
"It is actually quite common to observe important cultural change, including adoption of wholly new identities, with little or no biological change to a population," Simon James, the Leicester University archaeologist, writes."


Es decir, tan sólo 10,000 (o como máximo 25,000 personas )hacen que cambie de la noche a la mañana el idioma que utilizan para comunicarse más de 3,500,000 personas que además tienen una cultura superior a la de los teóricamente invasores...
¿Qué extraño es todo esto verdad?

lunes, octubre 16, 2006

Más direcciones para aclarar el origen histórico de la lengua inglesa






Y ya en el terreno de la mitología:


¿El golf también es de origen romano?

Otro misterio que también podría llegar a ser aclarado es el origen del golf:

"El origen del juego es incierto y polémico. Algunos investigadores lo remontan al juego romano imperial de pagánica; otros lo consideran una evolución del jeu de mail francés o del kolven (la palabra Kolf significa palo) holandés. La investigación se ha centrado en establecer la similitud del Golf con otros juegos a lo largo de la historia, y considerarlos como precedente. Han existido tantos "juegos de pelota" que encontrar un precursor es pura especulación.
El juego de pagánica romano
El pagánica era un juego muy popular entre los campesinos romanos durante los primeros años del Imperio. La leyenda dice que se jugaba con un palo doblado y una pelota de cuero relleno de plumas. Las reglas de este juego no están claras. La relación se establece precisamente a partir de esta pelota porque las bolas primitivas de Golf se hacían también con plumas envueltas en cuero, si bien no está demostrado que las dimensiones de la bola del pagánica corresponda con la del Golf (se cree que tenía de 10 a 18 cm de diámetro). La expansión del Imperio Romano pudo muy bien llevar el pagánica hacia otras regiones de Europa, ya que el establecimiento de campamentos legionarios (origen de muchas ciudades romanas) implica la exportación de las costumbres romanas, y es de suponer que los soldados se entretendrían en sus ratos libres con los mismos pasatiempos que en su casa. Este juego se considera como precursor del cambuca, el jeu de meil, el chole, el crosse, el kolven y el pall mall."

sábado, octubre 14, 2006

Britannia Romana

Una parte de la historia de Britania no demasiado aclarada, ¿realmente se
fueron todos los romanos?
Después de llevar allí un periodo de tiempo similar al que ha pasado desde
la colonización de América hasta nuestros días, resulta que de un día para
otro todo desaparece....¿desaparece o queda oculto?

Palabras clave del inglés (English key words)

English key word, bueno pues ya tenemos las tres primeras... palabras extrañas, con pocas sílabas, y muy utilizadas, ... esa sería la clave.
Veamos algunas de las 100 palabras más utilizadas en el inglés actual, que para nuestra sorpresa tienen algo en común:
the ; of ; and ; a ; to ; in ; is ; you ; that ; it ; he ; was ; for ; on ; are ; as ; with ; his ; they ; I ; at ; be ; this ; have ; from ; or ; one ; had ; by ; word ; but ; not ; what ; all ; were ; we ; when ; your ; can ; said ; there ; use ; an ; each ; which ; she ; do ; how ; their ; if ; will ; up ; other ; about ; out ; many ; then ; them ; these ; so ; some ; her ; would ; make ; like ; him ; into ; time ; has ; look ; two ; more ; write ; go ; see ; number ; no ; way ; could ; people ; my ; than ; first ; water ; been ; call ; who ; oil ; its ; now ; find ; long ; down ; day ; did ; get ; come ; made ; may ; part.
Y con tan sólo este tipo de palabras es incluso posible mantener una conversación oral inteligible. Realmente el antiguo inglés es la estructura del lenguaje inglés, todo lo demás son "adornos" y nuevas palabras para definir nuevas cosas o nuevas palabras para volver a definir lo que ya estaba definido por otra palabra.
¿Cuál es tu opinión acerca de esto?
Recuerda que puedes escribir tu comentario (el acceso es libre, sólo tienes que hacer "clic" en comentarios).

viernes, octubre 13, 2006

¿palabras muy usuales o palabras "clave"?

Siguiendo en la línea histórica, resulta que un gran número de palabras muy antiguas (que provienen de ese llamado "old english") continuan siendo las más utilizadas hoy día (1500 años después...), es decir, las palabras realmente importantes, las que dan la estructura a la lengua inglesa son las palabras antiguas !!!

Entonces (y esa es una de las hipótesis de partida de este trabajo de investigación) todo resultaría fácil...tan sólo hay que investigar el origen de esas palabras...cuando comenzaron a utilizarse y en que fechas aparecen las primeras referencias a ellas...y hay es donde comienza la que vamos a denominar "english adventure", como algún autor inglés ha querido denominar a este verdadero misterio que no se sabe porque motivos siempre se ha querido ocultar (y como muestra un botón: los famosos "Dark Ages").


  • Baugh, A. C. & Cable, T.: A History of the English Language. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1993.
  • Blake, N. A History of the English Language. London: Macmillan. 1996.
  • Blake, N. ed. The Cambridge History of he English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 1992.
  • Burchfield, R. The English Language. Oxford: O.U.P. 1985.
  • Cruz, J. de la y A. Cañete. Historia del Inglés. Málaga: Edinford. 1992.
  • Freeborn, D. From Old English to Standard English. London: Macmillan. 1992.
  • Leith, D. A Social History of English. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1983.
  • Mitchell, B. A Guide to Old English. Oxford: Blackwell. 1992.
  • Pyles, T. & Algeo, J. The Origins and Development of the English Language. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Janovich. 1982. .
  • Strang, B. A History of English. London: Methuen. 1977.
  • Wakelin, M. The Archaeology of English. London: Batsford. 1988.

jueves, octubre 12, 2006

¿Por qué muchas de las palabras en inglés son pronunciadas de forma diferente a como se escriben?

La ortografía del inglés es bastante impredecible, y en ocasiones se torna completamente caótica. Esta es una opinión compartida tanto por estudiantes de colegios ingleses como por quienes estudian inglés en todo el mundo. Sin embargo, algunos estudios del idioma señalan que hay sólo cerca de 400 palabras en inglés en las que la ortografía es completamente irregular. Lamentablemente muchas de ellas están entre las más usadas del idioma.

Los problemas con el sistema ortográfico del inglés existen desde que el idioma se ha ido desarrollando durante un período de 1.000 años. Algunos surgieron un poco antes, cuando los romanos trataron de escribir inglés antiguo usando las 23 letras del alfabeto latín. El inglés antiguo contiene cerca de 40 vocales y consonantes.

La influencia del francés luego de la conquista normanda también generó un impacto en la forma de escribir el inglés. Escribientes franceses introdujeron la "qu" donde el inglés antiguo empleaba la "cw", por ejemplo, queen, y "gh" en lugar de "h", por ejemplo, night, entre otros cambios.

La invención de la imprenta en 1476 significó que surgiera un sistema de ortografía estándar. Antes de este invento, los escribientes simplemente tenían que escribir una nueva ortografía para reflejar la pronunciación.

Así, la ortografía moderna refleja de muchas maneras una pronunciación antigua de palabras que se remontan a la Edad Media.

A pesar de muchos intentos por reformar el sistema ortográfico inglés, no se han presentado cambios desde el siglo XVI - especialmente porque nadie se ha puesto de acuerdo en cuál sería la mejor alternativa de escritura.


¿es está explicación la adecuada?
¿es coherente?
¿los romanos preocupándose por escribir una lengua de pueblo incivilizado que sólo les había dado problemas para dominarlo?

El Imperio acaba de conquistar definitivamente la mayor parte de la isla, esa isla que tanto ha costado en vidas y recursos por fin ya está casi totalmente dentro de la civilización.
Desde que comenzó la invasión ha pasado tiempo, mucho tiempo, y un buen número de aquellos valerosos legionarios murieron, pero otros muchos se quedaron aquí para siempre, como lo que ya ran por derecho propio después de tantos años de servicio al Imperio: ciudadanos con tierras propias en las zonas más fértiles de esta parte del Imperio.

Después de todo, habían pasado aquí casi toda su vida y era su justa recompensa, tal y como quedaba establecido en ese contrato que firmaron hace ya tantos años.

¿Dónde comienza a hablarse inglés?
¿Cuándo comienza?

Retrocedamos en la historia,....antes del inglés ¿qué lengua se hablaba en Inglaterra?...mejor dicho...en Britannia

Algunas direcciones web útiles para situarnos:






Y unas direcciones muy interesante, sobre todo para los que nunca dejamos de preguntar:




Aquí va a comenzar a publicarse una historia apasionante, uno de los secretos mejor guardados en el historia durante más de 1.500 años... la historia del inglés.